The Invisible Armada

Channeling Hegemony: 

Vietnamese online newspapers and the reproduction of western narratives on Israel's war on Gaza




It is no secret that the Vietnamese used to be dehumanized in American narratives during and in the aftermath of the Vietnam war. Now, Palestinians are being called “human animals” by Israelis[1]. One would expect that the media in Vietnam – a country and a people that, for a long time, were demonized and dehumanized by American and Western rhetoric – would try to do justice to the representation of Palestinians in its media. However, a glance at Vietnam’s top online newspapers unveils a troubling reality: they uncritically echo mainstream Western media, bolstering Israeli and American narratives on the war in Gaza.

The portrayal of the Gaza war by Western media has faced scathing criticism from multiple quarters. The Palestinian Journalists' Syndicate (PJS), member of the International Federation of Journalists, asserts that Western outlets are not only failing to deliver objective truth but are acting as conduits for Israeli military propaganda during Israel's genocidal war on Gaza[2]. Experts argue that, amid Israel's bombardment of Gaza, Western media organizations consistently “dehumanize Palestinians” and “legitimize Israeli violations of international law,” omitting the crucial historical context of the Palestinians' 75-year-long trauma[3]. Notably, outlets like The Independent, CNN, Fox News, and the New York Post have been criticized for disseminating unverified claims, including Israel's accusations of Hamas beheading 40 infants. The New York Times, which published an unsubstantiated allegation of Hamas employing mass rape as a weapon of war, is said to be peddling Israeli propaganda[4]. Even more problematically, CNN coverage on Israel/Palestine has been reported to be subject to review by its Jerusalem bureau operating under the shadow of the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) censor[5]. In summary, Western media coverage of the war on Gaza has faced criticism for amplifying Israeli narratives, dehumanizing Palestinians, neglecting historical context, and disseminating unverified claims, raising concerns about its objectivity and depth of reporting. 

According to, a platform that provides views of digital traffic, the five most-visited online newspapers in Vietnam in December, 2023, include VnExpress, 24h, Dantri, Tuoitre, and Thanhnien[6]. Most of these platforms are managed by government agencies, with VnExpress under the Ministry of Science and Technology, Dantri affiliated with the Ministry of Labor, Invalids and Social Affairs, Tuoitre under Hồ Chí Minh City Youth Union, and Thanhnien associated with the Vietnam Youth Union. Only 24h is privately owned by the 24h Online Advertising Joint Stock Company. A report in December 2022 included in the top three instead of; the rest is the same. This consistent ranking indicates these online newspapers’ sustained prominence before and after October 7, 2023.

This article presents an overview of Israel and Palestine’s representation in these leading newspapers from January 1 to January 7, 2024. After analyzing about 20 articles, key findings include the following. First, there is a heavy reliance on Western media sources like Agence France-Presse (AFP), the New York Times, Sky News, CNN, Reuters, and even the Times of Israel. Second, the coverage predominantly favors the Israeli perspective, often detailing Israeli names and stories while reducing Palestinians to casualty statistics. Finally, there is a noticeable absence of the context of Israel’s 75-year illegal occupation of Palestine and its blockade on the Gaza Strip since 2007. The primary context invoked to explain the war on Gaza is Hamas’s attack on Israel on October 7, 2023.

In the next section, I present evidence from 10 selected articles, two from each of Vietnam’s top five online newspapers. These articles are chosen from the publications on the first and the last days of the observed period: January 1, 2024, and January 7, 2024. However, due to the absence of articles related to the Gaza war on January 7 from and, I selected two articles published on January 9 for each respective source. Additionally, on January 7, released an article with a title (“Israel declared to have eliminated Hamas leadership in Northern Gaza”) akin to’s article on the same day (“Israel declared to have “rooted out” Hamas leadership in Northern Gaza”). As these articles cover the same issue using similar language, I opted for another article from, published on January 9, to represent the source.


While analyzing these articles, I consider key questions: What are the sources used? What context is given? Whose perspective is emphasized? How are individuals from Israel and Palestine portrayed, including Israeli officials and civilians, Hamas, and Palestinian civilians?

Top-ranked online newspaper: VnExpress

On Jan 1, 2024, VnExpess published an article titled “The ace helping Israel engage in urban warfare in Gaza” (Át chủ bài giúp Israel tác chiến giữa đô thị Gaza) [7].  This article discusses Israel's use of small-sized unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for tunnel scouting in Gaza. It heavily relies on sources such as The Wall Street Journal, AFP, and Reuters, reflecting an Israeli perspective. Israeli officials like the National Security Council and former advisor Jacob Nagel, along with Israel’s allies such as Blake Resnick, CEO of the American UAV company BRINC, and Aviv Shapira, co-founder and CEO of the UAV company XTEND, outline Israel's strategy, emphasizing the UAVs as a “lifeline” for soldiers. The article describes Gaza as “a densely populated battlefield, filled with landmines and traps,” and an “underground labyrinth, a place harboring life-threatening dangers for every soldier.” Hamas forces are depicted as “frequently hiding and appearing intermittently.”  There is no mention of civilians in Gaza although the strip is described as “densely populated”. The framing of Gaza as a “battlefield filled with landmines” effectively erases the Palestinian civilians living in the Strip. This distorts reality, portraying Israeli soldiers as trapped in a perilous land in need of support, while it is Palestinians confined in a tiny strip enduring air, land, and sea bombardments.

On Jan 7, 2024, VnExpress published another article, titled “The fear of facing Hezbollah haunts the people of Israel” (Nỗi lo đối đầu Hezbollah ám ảnh người Israel) [8]. Its sources include Washington Post, Reuters, and AFP. If the Jan 1 article adopts Israel’s official point of view, in this article, VnExpress highlights the voice of Israeli civilians amid a potential armed conflict between Israel and Hezbollah in Lebanon. The Israeli civilians in this article are mentioned by name, including David Shtift, Moshe Davidovich, Dotan Razili, Tirtsa Valentine, and many others. Directly quoted, they have a channel to express their concerns: “What is happening in the south is precisely what we fear could happen here, that's the truth.” Using emotive words such as “fear” (nỗi lo), “haunting” (ám ảnh), “concerned” (lo ngại), “never feeling safe” (luôn cảm thấy bất an), “bitter” (cay đắng), “afraid” (sợ), “insecure” (bất an), “struggling” (vật lộn), this lengthy article delves deeply into the emotions of Israeli civilians. The article suggests Israelis undergo these emotions due to the government’s lack of effort in providing assistance, including lodging and simplified housing procedures. Evacuees from the Lebanon border region are said to feel uncertain about their homes and return timelines. However, the article’s detailed focus on Israeli psychological distress, which pales in comparison to the extensive death and destruction Palestinians have endured, is ironic. It should be noted that VnExpress, between Jan 1 and Jan 7, 2024, published no report from a Palestinian perspective, showing a clear selective sympathy for Israelis.

Second-ranked online newspaper: 24h

On Jan 1, 2024, 24h published an article titled “Israel faces a series of rocket attacks right at the beginning of the new year” (Israel hứng loạt rốc-két ngay đầu năm mới)[9]. This is a republication of the same article originally published on the Tiền Phong online newspaper (, the central agency of the Hồ Chí Minh Communist Youth Union, citing Reuters and the Times of Israel as sources.

The title portrays Israel as the victim of Hamas rockets on an inopportune date, specifically at the start of the new year. Similarly, the visual illustration titled “Rocket attacks on Israel on January 1, 2024,” credited to the Times of Israel, reinforces Israel’s victimization narrative. However, throughout the article, it features the voices of several sides, including the Israeli army, the U.S. army, the forces of Palestine Islamic Jihad, the United Nations, the World Health Organization, and Palestinian civilians. On the one hand, the article describes Israeli pedestrians having to find shelter from Hamas rockets and cites Israeli Prime Minister Netanyahu’s warning that the conflict could last “many months until Hamas is eliminated, and hostages are released,” which, similar to the January 1, VnExpress article, problematically portrays Israel’s priorities in Gaza as eradicating Hamas and rescuing Israeli hostages when Israel’s conduct has proved otherwise. 

On the other hand, the article also tells stories of Palestinians, documents their name and age, and quotes them directly. It highlights the plight of Gaza residents Hamdan Abu Arab, 20, and Bassam Hana, 29 years old: “We’ve had to move homes five times during this conflict. We’re exhausted. Hopefully, things will be better in 2024. Right now, we're not living like humans but like animals.” The article quotes UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres who condemns the “appalling human suffering” and “collective punishment” of Palestinian civilians. It references the WHO’s warning about the risk of infectious disease spread. The article also mentions a “Hamas delegation” from Qatar arriving in Cairo on December 29 to discuss Egypt’s proposed plan, which includes three stages: a ceasefire, the release of hostages and Palestinian prisoners, and ultimately, an end to the conflict.

In summary, this article provides insight into the actions and statements of various parties involved in the conflict. It strikingly diverges from the other samples by highlighting the UN’s condemnation of Israel's violations of international law, specifically the collective punishment of Palestinians in Gaza. Additionally, Hamas is depicted in an official capacity, engaging in negotiations rather than being portrayed as terrorists or criminals, as seen in other articles. Notably, the article humanizes Palestinians by identifying them by name and age and quoting their thoughts and feelings. However, the title “Israel faces a series of rocket attacks right at the beginning of the new year” is somewhat misleading as it does not fully encapsulate the main content of the article.

On Jan 7, 24h published “Israel declared to have ‘rooted out’ Hamas leadership in Northern Gaza” (Israel tuyên bố “nhổ rễ” chỉ huy Hamas ở Bắc Gaza)[10]. Similar to the other article on 24h, it is a republication of an original article published on the Labor Electronic Newspaper (, a news agency under the Hồ Chí Minh City Party Committee. Citing Sky News and Reuters, the article reports events through the view of Israeli and U.S. officials, highlighting their narratives. Rear Admiral Daniel Hagari, spokesperson for the Israel Defense Forces, stated on Jan 6 that Israel had completed the destruction of Hamas' military infrastructure in northern Gaza and eliminated around 8,000 Hamas militants. Israeli Prime Minister Netanyahu directed the military to “eliminate Hamas, rescue all hostages, and ensure Gaza poses no threat to Israel.” This reinforces Israel's dubious narrative of self-defense and aims to eradicate Hamas and rescue Israeli hostages. The article also adopts a U.S. perspective, framing Secretary of State Antony Blinken's fourth Middle East tour in three months as an effort to prevent conflict escalation, allowing “aid” to gain access to civilians in Gaza.

Palestinians are mentioned only in terms of statistics of casualties. They are said to have “lost their lives” (thiệt mạng), effectively framed as collateral damage. 

Third-ranked online newspaper: Dantri

On Jan 2 Dantri released an article titled “Israel announces the withdrawal of thousands of soldiers from the Gaza Strip” (Israel thông báo rút bớt hàng nghìn binh sĩ khỏi dải Gaza)[11]. The article, sourced from Associated Press News (AP News), presents an Israeli perspective. It features direct and indirect quotes from Israeli Rear Admiral Daniel Hagari and retired Brigadier General Shlomo Brom, both highlighting the expected long duration of the Gaza conflict. They explain the decision to withdraw soldiers for training and rest. The article’s claim that “tens of thousands of people on both sides have been killed” in recent months is grossly misleading. As of its publication on January 2, 2024, tens of thousands of Palestinians and around 1,300 Israelis have been killed, including 1,200 casualties on October 7 and 172 soldiers since then[12]. Furthermore, the article frames Hamas’s operation on October 7th, 2023, as the context of Israel’s attacks on Gaza, ignoring the larger context of Israel’s occupation of Palestine and blockade of the Gaza Strip.  As the media watch group FAIR warned in 2012, when decoding media messages on Israel/Palestine, it is essential to consider when reporters claim that the latest violence started, “They’re picking a starting point for a reason.”[13] Nevertheless, Western media continue to present timelines that position Israel as responding to Palestinian violence, hence justifying Israel’s ethnic cleansing in Gaza. This Dantri article, alongside countless others in Vietnamese newspapers, is mindlessly condoning Israel’s crimes against Palestinians by echoing Western news.

The next Dantri article is “The Red Sea heats up: Conflict could erupt and escalate at any time” (Biển Đỏ nóng lên: Xung đột có thể bùng nổ và lan rộng bất cứ lúc nào)[14], published on Jan 9, 2024, citing Sky News as its source. From the perspective of Western consumers, the article explains that the increase in the prices of commodities is attributed to the attacks by Houthi forces, a supporter of Hamas, on commercial ships, primarily those related to Israel or en route to Israel. Highlighting a Western narrative, the article writes: “In response to Houthi attacks, the U.S. and 12 other countries, including the UK, established a naval special operations force and launched the ‘Prosperity Defender’ campaign to protect civilian ships.” This frames the U.S. as a protector of civilian ships, and by extension, civilians. The article further paints the U.S. and the West as conscientious, benevolent protectors and referees, quoting Raphael Cohen, Director of the Strategy and Doctrine Program at RAND AIR FORCE: “The United States, like the international community, has tried to avoid causing real harm to the Houthis,” and that “the United States and its allies are torn between the goals of de-escalation in the region, thus opting for less use of force.” Minimizing the context of Houthi attacks on commercial ships in the Red Sea, this article portrays them solely as disruptions to global commerce rather than as acts of solidarity with the Palestinian struggle against Israeli occupation.

Fourth-ranked online newspaper: Tuoitre

On Jan 1, 2024, Tuoitre published an article titled “The United Nations warns that half of the population in Gaza is at risk of starving” (Liên Hiệp Quốc cảnh báo một nửa người dân ở Gaza có nguy cơ chết đói)[15]. This article reports on the food crisis in Gaza. It quotes testimonies from Palestinian civilians undergoing such a crisis. However, to explain the crisis, the article invokes Eylon Levy, spokesperson for the Israeli government, who blames Hamas for the current situation and declares that Israel does not impede humanitarian assistance activities in Gaza. It says that while Levy does not provide evidence for his accusation of Hamas of seizing humanitarian aid, Western and Arab officials claim that Hamas is known to have a large stockpile of supplies, including food, fuel, and medications. The article fails to address Israel's blockade of Gaza, which includes cutting off essential supplies such as food, water, gas, and medications. These actions potentially constitute war crimes under international humanitarian law.

On January 9, Tuoitre published another article, titled “Hezbollah attacks Israel, avenging the elimination of a high-ranking commander” (Hezbollah tấn công Israel, trả đũa vụ chỉ huy cấp cao bị tiêu diệt)[16], citing Reuters as its source. The article states that Hezbollah attacked an Israeli military base in the city of Safed, located near the Israel-Lebanon border. The following sentence summarizes the article as well as its problematic narrative: “The tension between the two sides also heightens international concerns about the potential escalation of the Israel-Hamas conflict, turning it into a war involving Israel against other Islamic organizations, as well as groups supporting Hamas.” First, Israel’s bombardment of Gaza and killing of civilians, mostly non-Hamas individuals such as children and women, is depicted as a conflict between Israel and Hamas only. Three months into the war on Jan 9, 2024, when this article was published, Israel had killed approximately 23,000 Palestinians in Gaza, mostly civilians. Even in the occupied West Bank where Hamas is absent, between Oct 7, 2023 and Jan 9, 2024, more than 300 Palestinians were killed and just under 4000 of them were injured by Israeli forces and settlers[17]. Thus, to describe the war as an Israel-Hamas conflict is a misnomer. Second, the article’s repeated labeling of Hamas and its supporters as "Islamic organizations" misleadingly portrays the conflict in Gaza as a religious war between the Jewish state and an Islamic group. This characterization overlooks Hamas’s role in the broader Palestinian resistance against Israel’s occupation and apartheid in Gaza and the West Bank, which is a struggle of the occupied against the occupier, of the oppressed against the oppressor, irrespective of religious affiliations.

Fifth-ranked online newspaper: Thanhnien

On Jan 1, 2024, Thanhnien published article “Israel's formidable combat dog forces in Gaza” (Lực lượng quân khuyển lợi hại của Israel ở dải Gaza)[18], citing The Guardian, the New York Post, and the Times of Israel as its primary sources. 

It sets Hamas’s attack on Israel on October 7, 2023, as the starting point of Israel’s aggression in Gaza, and Israel’s bombardments on Gaza a “responsive campaign.” Unsurprisingly, the war is termed the “Hamas-Israel conflict” and Israel’s onslaughts in Gaza are mitigated as Israel’s “military operations.” It also echoes Israel’s propaganda that Israel’s aim in Gaza is to eliminate Hamas. Although there is a mention of the number of casualties and wounded people, there is no mention of the words “Palestinians” or “Gazans'' throughout the article.

The article discusses the Oketz canine unit’s involvement in Israel’s Gaza conflict. The neutral term “combat dogs” is translated as “những chú chó” (loosely, “canine friends”), a term that tends to personify dogs as cute and friendly. In English, terms such as IDF “soldier” and/yet Hamas “gunman” show a biased notion of IDF as legitimate and Hamas as criminals (the definition of “gunman” in the online Cambridge Dictionary is “a man, usually a criminal, who is armed with a gun.”[19]) The Vietnamese version perpetuates the biased portrayal of Hamas as villainous criminals and the IDF as noble soldiers who personified dogs aid. While Palestinians are rarely mentioned by name, Israel’s combat dogs, named Patrick and Toy, are prominently introduced. As such, the dehumanization of Palestinians is devastatingly heightened when contrasted with the humanization of Israeli dogs.

On January 9, published an article titled “The U.S. Secretary of State faces a challenging mission in Israel” (Ngoại trưởng Mỹ đối mặt nhiệm vụ khó khăn ở Israel)[20]. It cites Reuters and the Wall Street Journal as its sources. This article takes a U.S. perspective in approaching the U.S. Secretary of State Antony Blinken’s fourth Middle East tour. After introducing Blinken’s schedule in the Middle East, the article expresses Washington’s concern over the escalation of violence in the region. The U.S. is portrayed as a peace negotiator who is trying to not only pressure Israel to present immediate measures to increase aid into Gaza, but also convince Arab nations to prepare to play roles in the plans of reconstructing, managing, and maintaining security in Gaza once Israel eliminates Hamas. Then, the article shifts to present Israel’s standpoint with a section titled “Israel’s determination,” which is later clarified as “determination to fight” as the article cites these words by Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu. It also echoes Israel’s highly questionable proclaimed objectives in Gaza: “eliminate Hamas, bring back [to Israel] all hostages, and ensure that Gaza is no longer a threat to Israel." In short, this article aligns with the pattern observed in the previous analyses, serving as another channel for Israeli and U.S. war propaganda.

Inside the article, two videos are edited by a different journalist, without citing any sources. Most of the first video is simply a visual representation of the article itself, with images of Blinken in Jordan and Qatar. The video also shows some images of Gaza and brief statements of two unnamed Gazans about Blinken’s visit.The second video, titled “Gaza Strip - a perilous land for journalists,” is a more interesting addition and an antithesis to the article at large. Dubbed with Vietnamese subtitles, the video showcases Wael Al-Dahdouh, Al Jazeera's Gaza bureau chief, who tragically lost his wife, son, and daughter in an Israeli airstrike. Recently, his eldest son was also killed by Israel. The video features close-up shots of Wael Al-Dahdouh in tears, mourning the loss of his family. He urges viewers to witness the suffering of innocent Gazans through their own eyes rather than the lens of Israel. What is extremely ironic is that while the journalist in Gaza pleads with viewers to discern reality independently rather than accepting Israel’s narrative, the video showcasing his plea is embedded within a larger newspaper article that merely perpetuates Israeli and U.S. propaganda. It is a grim reminder of how Palestinian voices are suppressed, even when they manage to reach a global audience, overshadowed by the dominant narrative controlled by Israel. 


Out of the 10 articles examined, 9 predominantly portray the perspectives of Israel and the U.S., addressing Israeli and U.S. officials, civilians, and combat dogs, while Palestinians are mainly depicted as casualties, with minimal visibility and representation. The articles often refer to Hamas’s attack on Israel on Oct 7, 2023, as the catalyst for the Gaza war, omitting Israel’s long-standing illegal occupation of the West Bank and the blockade of Gaza for context. Many of these articles rely on Western media sources whose pro-Israel bias has been criticized by many.

With experts’ warning of Gazans facing a genocide[21], reporting only one side of the story, especially the perspective of those potentially committing genocide, is not only unprofessional but also unethical. While it is understandable that Vietnamese newspapers lack reporters in Gaza due to Israel’s restrictions on journalists entering the Strip, mindlessly parroting Western media without independent verification is inexcusable. There are various sources available for Vietnamese journalists in Vietnam to study and rely on for their reports. And yet, while the Times of Israel is cited many times, Arab media outlets, such as Al Jazeera, with journalists stationed inside Gaza sharing Palestinian stories are mostly overlooked. Moreover, millions worldwide are gaining insight into the Gaza war through Palestinian journalists’ social media accounts[22]. Platforms like Facebook (widely popular in Vietnam), TikTok, and Instagram enable Palestinian journalists like Motaz Azaiza, Bisan Owda, and Hind Khoudary to livestream the hardships, casualties, and devastation faced by their community. And yet, journalists of Vietnam’s leading online newspapers seem to be unaware of these first-hand sources of information. Even in the West, independent journalists, such as Owen Jones and Lowkey, have produced extensive investigative podcasts and videos available for free on platforms like YouTube. Despite all this, Vietnamese newspapers persist in relying on Western corporate media for their sources.

At its best, this is sloppy journalism. At its worst, these newspapers and journalists, perhaps unintentionally, are complicit in Israel’s ethnic cleansing of Palestinians. They seem to have forgotten that the same America-made bombs and weapons were dropped upon our land, murdering and traumatizing our people, that the same rhetoric of degradation and dehumanization was employed against us. And while Agent Orange has not been washed off from Vietnamese soil and water, continuing to cripple our children, adopting an American perspective when reporting on atrocities committed by the U.S. and its genocidal, apartheid ally, Israel, is a betrayal of our own history and people. Isn’t it ironic that we triumphed over America to shape our destiny and voice our truths, only to now find ourselves echoing the narratives of our former oppressor?

It indeed begs the question: What went wrong? The majority of the newspapers examined are (supposedly) overseen by government agencies, which – considering Vietnam’s historical consistent solidarity with Palestine[23] and its struggle against America – means that inherently they should not align with Western perspectives on the Palestine issue. However, as storytellers conveying the Israel/Palestine narrative to Vietnamese readers, these newspapers opt for uncritical submission to readily available Western news outlets, choosing the path of least resistance and minimal effort. Although alternative sources are available, embracing their perspectives – many of which have only recently become accessible to Vietnamese audiences through the emergence of social media – challenges entrenched beliefs, such as viewing the Middle East solely as a perpetual war zone or characterizing Muslims as religious extremists. Following this route would pose significant challenges, necessitating thorough investigative journalism rather than simple translation tasks. Politically, Vietnam navigates relations with the U.S. with strategic caution, but culturally, the American and Western hegemony has long overshadowed Vietnamese society. Just as Hollywood films and American TV shows are familiarizing and normalizing American values for Vietnamese viewers, Western news outlets are shaping Vietnamese readers’ understanding of the world. The Western ascendancy over Vietnamese people’s worldview is carried out not through violence, and not even surreptitiously[24], but openly in the name of the much celebrated course of “modernization” and “globalization,” often synonymous with “Westernization.”

To assume that the communist leaders in Hà Nội are unaware of Western narratives invading Vietnamese minds would be an underestimation of their keen insight. Nevertheless, as long as these Western perspectives do not undermine the Party by, for instance, altering its official narrative of the Vietnam War or questioning the legitimacy of its leadership, the central government seems to allow the press the freedom to be swayed by the West. While Vietnam has a historical record of supporting Palestine’s quest for independence, its recent support has been primarily symbolic. Fairly speaking, Vietnam’s influence on the Gaza situation is limited. However, if Yemen can attack Israel’s commerce, Vietnam could confront it culturally. The Vietnamese government should, at the very least, curb the dissemination of Israeli/Western propaganda that have become common in domestic newspapers and educate the public about oppression, colonialism, and Western hegemony. Given its pragmatic approach since the late 1980s, the Party could seize the opportunity presented by Gaza to launch a press campaign showcasing the war from the perspective of the oppressed Palestinian people. This campaign could draw parallels between Palestine and Vietnam, serving to reemphasize and reinforce the Party’s pivotal role in leading the nation’s struggle towards eventual triumph over its oppressors. However, Vietnam appears to overlook Palestine’s relevance to its own destiny, possibly due to complacency with its recent economic prosperity and relatively low level of dissent. Lacking a steadfast commitment to supporting Palestine, the country’s social elites, including journalists and reporters, have fallen into a state of political and intellectual inertia, passively colluding with Western media without critically examining their narratives. In 1973, inspired by Vietnam’s seemingly secured victory over America, Palestinian poet Mahmoud Darwish wrote: “In the conscience of the peoples of the world, the torch has been passed from Vietnam to us.”[25] Alas, once we were torchbearers of inspiration for Palestine, today we stand accused of collaborating in its erasure and dehumanization, a grievous departure from the solidarity that once united us in the struggle for freedom and justice.


P. S. I thank Alain Brossat, Kahlan Alradhi, and Michael Furmanovsky for always keeping it real, never holding back on criticism, and constantly pushing me to stay on the qui vive.


[1]  On Oct 9, 2023, Israeli Defense Minister Yoav Gallant ordered a “complete siege” of the Gaza Strip, saying “We are fighting human animals and we are acting accordingly.” This was nonchalantly reported by the Times of Israel on the same day. 

[2] Zhang, S. (2023, May 2). Palestinian Journalists’ Union says Western media is “facilitating genocide”. Truthout. 

[3] Nashed, M. (2023, Oct 29). Western coverage of Israel’s war on Gaza – bias or unprofessionalism? Al Jazeera. 

[4] Roth, A. L. & Huff, M. (2023, Dec 7). How corporate media helped lay the groundwork for Israel’s genocide in Gaza. Analyst News. 

[5] Boguslaw, D. (2024, Jan 4). CNN runs Gaza coverage past Jerusalem team operating under shadow of IDF censor. The Intercept.,CNN%20Runs%20Gaza%20Coverage%20Past%20Jerusalem%20Team%20Operating%20Under%20Shadow,network%27s%20coverage%20of%20the%20war 

[6] Similar Web. (2023, Dec). Top websites ranking: most visited news and media publishers websites in Vietnam. Retrieved from 

[7] Hoàng, V. (2024, Jan 1). Át chủ bài giúp Israel tác chiến giữa đô thị Gaza. VnExpress. 

[8] Hoàng, V. (2024, Jan 7). Nỗi lo đối đầu Hezbollah ám ảnh người Israel. VnExpress. 

[9] Bình Giang. (2024, Jan 1). Israel hứng loạt rốc-két ngay đầu năm mới. 24h. 

[10] Huệ Bình. (2024, Jan 7). Israel tuyên bố “nhổ rễ” chỉ huy Hamas ở Bắc Gaza. 24h.

[11] Đức Hoàng. (2024, Jan 2). Israel thông báo rút bớt hàng nghìn binh sĩ khỏi dải Gaza. Dantri.

[12] S. Mahmood, “Israel-Hamas war: Report updated January 2, 2024”. Linked in. 

[13] Hart, P. (2012, Nov 15). When does Israel/Palestine violence start? FAIR. 

[14] Nguyễn, B. (Jan 9, 2024). Biển Đỏ nóng lên: Xung đột có thể bùng nổ và lan rộng bất cứ lúc nào. Dantri. 

[15] Minh Khôi. (2024, Jan 1). Liên Hiệp Quốc cảnh báo một nửa người dân ở Gaza có nguy cơ chết đói.  Tuoitre. 

[16] Nhật Đăng. (2024, Jan 9). Hezbollah tấn công Israel, trả đũa vụ chỉ huy cấp cao bị tiêu diệt. Tuoitre. 

[17] Relief Web. (2024, Jan 22). Hostilities in the Gaza Strip and Israel: Flash update # 98. Retrieved from 

[18] Khánh An. (2024, Jan 1). Lực lượng quân khuyển lợi hại của Israel ở dải Gaza. Thanhnien. 

[19] Cambridge Dictionary. (n.d.). Gunman. In Retrieved Jan 26, 2024, from 

[20] Lam Vũ. (2024, Jan 9). Ngoại trưởng Mỹ đối mặt nhiệm vụ khó khăn ở Israel. Thanhnien. 

[21] United Nations. (2023, Oct 19). Gaza: UN experts decry bombing of hospitals and schools as crimes against humanity, call for prevention of genocide. Retrieved from 

[22] Asif, Y. (2024, Jan 23). Palestinian journalist Motaz Azaiza says he is ‘evacuating’ from Gaza. Al Arabiya News. 

[23] Vietnam News Agency (2022, Oct 29). Vietnam emphasizes consistent stance on Palestine issue. Vietnam Plus.  

[24] Alain Brossat, in our email exchanges, suggested that Western dominance over Vietnam is not violent but surreptitious.

[25] Gandhi, E. L. E. (2022). Archipelago of resettlement: Vietnamese refugee settlers and decolonization across Guam and Israel-Palestine (p. 285). University of California Press.